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Contents

Preface  

1.  Culture and Anthropology  (sample chapter)

Anthropology Defined  

The Subdisciplines of Anthropology in the United States  

Cultural Anthropology  

Linguistics  

Physical Anthropology  

Archaeology  

The Concept of Culture  

Culture as Abstraction  

The Emic/Etic Distinction  

Ethnocentrism   

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

Endnotes  

References Cited  

2.  Fieldwork  

Anthropological Fieldwork: A History  

Transforming the Observer:
the Making of an Anthropologist  

The Fieldwork Process  

Getting Ready for Fieldwork: A Theory and a Question  

Working in the Field: First Contacts  

Working in the Field: Some Preliminary Steps  

Field Methods  

Fieldwork Responsibilities  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection   

References Cited  

3.  Culture Change and Transformation  

Culture as Evolutionary Adaptation  

Living Primates  

Human Ancestors  

Theories of the Transition to Modern Humans  

Cultural Dynamics  

Cultural Transformations and the Concept of Progress  

Mechanisms of Cultural Change  

Globalization  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

References Cited  

4.  Making a Living  

Early Views of Cross Cultural Subsistence  

Hunting and Gathering/Foraging  

Division of Labor   

Residence and Mobility  

Ownership and Sharing  

The Shape of Foraging Groups  

Herding and Pastoralism  

Residential and Territorial Patterns  

Division of Labor and Ownership  

The Shape of Pastoral Groups  

Horticulture and Small-Scale Farming  

Division of Labor  

Ownership, Distribution, and Residential Patterns  

Gender  

The Shape of Horticultural Societies  

Agriculture and Large-Scale Farming  

Division of Labor, Ownership, and Distribution of Wealth  

The Shape of Agricultural Societies  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

References Cited  

5  Living Together  

Why “Take me to your leader” does not always make sense,
    and other myths about social organization  

Savages and Barbarians  

Bands  

Kinship  

Consensus  

Seniority  

Inequality  

Division of Labor  

Gender  

Tribes  

Lineages  

Big Men  

Gender  

Chiefdoms  

Kinship and Inequality  

Political Structure and Division of Labor  

Gender  

States  

Kinship  

Inequality  

Division of Labor  

Gender  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection   

References Cited  

6.  Kinship and Marriage  

Kinship  

Kinship Recognition  

Reproduction and Residence  

Lineages and Ancestors  

Marriage, Affines and Alliance  

Kinship Terminology  

The Cultural Construction of Kinship  

Kinship and Culture Change  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

References Cited  

7.  Human Communication  

Human Communication  

Language Defined  

The Varieties of Linguistics  

Descriptive linguistics  

Evolutionary Linguistics  

Psycholinguistics  

Historical Linguistics  

Ethnolinguistics and Sociolinguistics  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

References Cited  

8.  Religion  

Origins of Religion  

Shamanism  

The Dark Arts  

How Religion Moves Us: The Power of Ritual  

Religion as Resistance  

Religion and Environmental Regulation  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

Endnotes  

References Cited  

9.  Art  

What Is Art?  

A Definition of Art  

The Question of Beauty  

The Roles of Art  

The Varieties of Art in Cultural Contexts  

The Stratification of Art  

Summary  

Endnotes  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

References Cited  

10.  Applied Anthropology  

Applied Medical Anthropology  

Physical Anthropology, Archaeology and Linguistics  

Hunger, Poverty and Power  

Victims of Progress  

Hidden Hunger  

Putting the Last First  

Human Rights and Needless Deaths  

Professional and Ethnical Issues  

Summary  

Questions for Thought and Reflection  

Endnotes  

References Cited  

 

Glossary  

Name Index  

Subject Index