Skip to main content
   
 

Sloan Publishing Home
Applied Behavior Analysis
Education
Anthropology
History
Infant Development
Gender Texts
Religion and Politics
Philosophy Through Film, 2/E
Political Science/International Affairs
Sociology Texts
Who We Are
What We Do
Submit a Proposal
Bookstore Information
Contact
Escape from Texas
Time, Space, and Number
galan
Democracy
BriefRomanHistory
LeBlanc ebook samples
Chase

 

 

 

Preface  ix

1. Introduction  1

Why Study Behavior?  1

What Is Behavior?  2

Operant Behavior  4

Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishers  5

The Development of Operant Behavior  6

Operant Stimulus Control: Generalization and Discrimination  7

The Generic Nature of Stimuli and Responses  8

Unconditioned Respondent Behavior  9

Conditioned Respondent Behavior  9

Summary and Conclusions  10

Key Terms and Concepts  10

Study Questions  11

2. What Is Inside?  13

Some Historical Background  13

Mentalism  15

Sometimes Mental Talk is Actually About Private, Covert Behavior  18

Behavior as a Scientific Subject Matter in its Own Right  19

Free-Will Objections to Behavior as a Scientific Subject Matter in its

 Own Right  19

What Does “Free Will” Actually Mean?  20

Summary and Conclusions  21

Reference  22

Key Terms and Concepts  22

Study Questions  22

3. Genes, Selection, and Physiology  23

Chromosomes  23

Genes  24

Genes as Causes of Behavior  26

Selection  27

The Selection of Behavior  28

The Selection of Operant Behavior  30

Summary and Conclusions  31

Reference  32

Key Terms and Concepts  32

Study Questions  32

4. The Nature of Verbal Behavior  33

The Evolution of Verbal Behavior  34

Verbal Behavior, Language, and Communication  35

The Functional Analysis of Verbal Behavior: Contingencies and

 Units  36

The Mand Relation  37

The Tact Relation  38

The Intraverbal Relation  39

Grammar and Syntax  39

Higher-order Verbal Relations: Equivalence Relations  40

Verbal Regulation  41

Interpretation  42

Verbal Behavior, Folk Psychology, and Mentalism  42

Summary and Conclusions  43

References  44

Key Terms and Concepts  44

Study Questions  44

5. Self  46

Individuality  46

Self as Agent  47

What Does Agency or Freedom Mean?  48

The Self in Behavior Analysis  50

Summary and Conclusions  51

References  52

Key Terms and Concepts  52

Study Questions              52

6. Consciousness and Awareness  53

What Does Consciousness Mean?  53

Private Behavioral Events  55

 Verbal Reports About Our Internal Sensations and Feelings  55

 The Influence of Covert Operant Behavior  57

Consciousness From a Traditional Point of View  58

Awareness  59

Some Contemporary Issues  60

Blindsight  60

 Phantom Limb Pain  61

 Consciousness in the Laboratory  61

Summary and Conclusions  62

References  62

Key Terms and Concepts  62

Study Questions  63

7. Thinking, Cognition, and Memory  64

What is the Behavior of Thinking?  64

Memory  66

Traditional Views of Thinking, Cognition, and Memory  69

Summary and Conclusions  71

Reference  72

Key Terms and Concepts  72

Study questions  72

8. Knowledge and Truth  73

Knowledge as Behavior  73

Knowing How and Knowing That  74

Knowledge From a Traditional Point of View  74

Truth  75

Verbal Processes, Truth, and Scientific Knowledge  76

Summary and Conclusions  78

References  79

Key Terms and Concepts  79

Study Questions  79

9. Perceiving  80

Behavior Analysis and Perceiving  80

Seeing as a Function of Environmental Circumstances  82

Some Representative Studies of Perceiving  83

Attention  85

Dreaming  86

A Traditional View of Perceiving  87

Summary and Conclusions  88

References  88

Key Terms and Concepts  89

Study Questions  89

10. Purpose, Intention, and Belief  90

Behavior Analysis and Purpose  90

Behavior Analysis and Intention  92

Behavior Analysis and Belief  93

Traditional Views of Purpose, Intention, and Belief  94

Summary and Conclusions  95

References  96

Key Terms and Concepts  96

Study Questions  96

11. Personality and Individual Differences  97

Personality  97

Behavior Analysis and Traits  99

Intelligence Testing  100

Creativity  103

Summary and Conclusions  105

References  106

Key Terms and Concepts  107

Study Questions  107

12. Attitudes, Attributions, and Situations  109

Behavior Analysis and Attitudes  109

Implicit Attitude Measurement  110

Behavior Analysis and Attribution  111

Attitudes From a Traditional Point of View  112

Internal Attributions and the Pernicious Social -isms  114

Summary and Conclusions  115

References  115

Key Terms and Concepts  116

Study Questions  116

13. Feelings, Emotions, Moods, and Motives  119

Feelings From a Behavioral Point of View  119

Traditional Accounts of Feelings  119

Feelings and the Mind-Body Problem  120

The Causal Status of Feelings and Emotions  120

Other Minds  122

Moods, Emotions, and Motives  122

The Feelings of Reinforcers  124

Summary and Conclusions  125

References  125

Key Terms and Concepts  125

Study Questions  125

14. Applied Behavior Analysis, Abnormal Behavior, and Therapy  127

Some Representative Behavior-Analytic Interventions  128

Clinical Behavior Analysis  130

Comparison to Traditional Views  132

Why Do Forms of Traditional Therapy Work When They Do?  134

Who Judges Improvement?  135

Summary and Conclusions  136

References  136

Key Terms and Concepts  136

Study Questions  137

15. Ethics and Morality  138

What is Good Conduct?   138

Social Impact as Another Consideration  140

The “Good”  140

The Temporal Context  142

The Moral-Ethical Matrix  142

Moral and Ethical Injunctions  143

Summary and Conclusions  143

References  144

Key Terms and Concepts  144

Study Questions  144

16. Values, Rights, and Responsibilities  146

Values as Reinforcers  146

Rights  147

Responsibility  147

Jurisprudence  148

Summary and Conclusions  150

References  150

Key Terms and Concepts  150

Study Questions  150

17. Education  152

A Behavior-Analytic View of the Educational Process  152

Contingencies and the Matter of Control  153

Verbal Knowledge  154

Tacts  154

Intraverbal Control  155

Some Traditional Assumptions About Students, the Educational Process,
 and the Role of the Instructor  156

Concepts, Collateral Responses, and Equivalence Classes  157

Behavior-Analytic Assessment  160

Summary and Conclusions  160

References  161

Key terms and concepts  161

Study questions  161

18. Societies and Cultures  163

Three Levels of Selection  163

Cultural Practices  164

Evolution of a Culture  166

Design of a Culture  167

Democracy  167

Summary and Conclusions  168

References  169

Study Questions  169

19. Conclusion  170

Name Index  173
Subject Index  175