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Table of Contents
1 Rome of the Kings   
The Geography of Italy  
The Peoples of Italy  
The Founding of Rome: Cicero’s Version  
The Founding of the Republic: Cicero  
2 Political Culture of the Roman Republic  
The Nature of the Polis  
The Patrician Constitution  
The Plebeian Constitution  
The Role of Diplomacy  
Informal Political Ties  
Order and Liberty  
Livy: From Monarchy to Republic  
The Importance of Concord  
Secession and Concession  
Values that Romans Believed Made them Great  
The Speech of Camillus: Religio, Pietas  
State Control over Religion 212 b.c.: Superstitio vs. Religio  
Skepticism About Religion  
Virtus, Gloria, Labor: Latin Buzz Words for Success  
The Rape of Lucretia: The Household’s Honor Above All Else  
Honesty in Financial Dealings  
Mucius Scaevola: Gloria, Fama  
The Schoolmaster of Falerii: Fides  
Cincinnatus at the Plough: Austeritas, Industria, Frugalitas  
An Open Society: Civitas  
Talent Spotting: Ingenium and Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder  
Patricians and Plebeians, Patrons and Clients  
Romulus Called the Protection of the Poor and Humble a “Patronage”  
The Roman Constitution According to Polybius  
The Consuls and the Senate  
The People  
Getting Elected  
Networking Relatives and Friends  
Motivating the Electorate  
Identifying the Voters  
The Daily Canvas  
Winning the Ordinary Folk  
Inculcating Military Values  
Fame, Family, and Self-Promotion: The Roman Funeral  
The Trimumphal Parade of Aemilius Paullus  
International Anarchy  
The Advantages of Vulnerability: Central Place Location and Internal Lines
   of Communication  
Rome’s Social-Military-Political Complex  
The Roman Military: “Participation Ratios”  
The Legions  
Roman Values  
The Roman Approach to Warfare  
Just War Rituals  
Clemency: “Romans Do Not, at First, Utterly Destroy a People”  
A Description of the Roman Army  
The Battle of Zama  
Sacking Cities and Distributing Booty  
War as Personal Vengeance: Caesar and Ambiorix  
The Importance of Diplomacy and Conciliation  
The Treaty Between Rome and the Latin States, 393 b.c.   
Treaty Between Rome and Carthage, 507 b.c.  
The Critical Decision of 338 b.c.: How Rome Handled Defeated Enemies  
Declaring and Waging War  
How the Wars with Carthage Began  
The End of Macedonia: The Third Macedonian War (171–167 b.c.)  
The Diplomatic Situation: The Kings and the Free Cities  
Roman War Propaganda  
Duplicitous New Wisdom: “They Did Not Recognize in this Embassy in the
            Ways of Rome”  
Cato’s Speech on the Rhodians: Not Everyone Subscribed to the “New Wisdom”  
Resources and Other Techniques of Warfare  
Roman Manpower Resources: The Secret of Roman Military Success  
Flexibility: Roman Borrowing from their Enemies  
The Fighting Spirit of the Romans  
Devotio: Self-Sacrifice for Rome  
Steadiness of the Romans: How They Coped with Defeat   
Weaknesses of Rome’s Military System  
Quarreling Consuls: the Dangers of Divided Command  
War Weariness  
A Problem with the Draft: Tribunes and Centurions  
Propaganda for Home Front Consumption: The Other  
Celtic Barbarity: “To Ill Treat the Remains of a Fellow Human After He Is
            Dead is Bestial”  
The Samnites: “They Despised the Soft Character of the Settled Farmers”  
Greeks: “Incompetent to Manage Their Own Affairs but Thinking
   Themselves Competent to Dictate War and Peace to Others.”  
Governing the Vanquished: Roman Style Provincial Administration  
A First Hand Account: Cicero’s Experience as Governor  
Cicero as Military Commander  
Civilian Administration: Favors, Meddlers, Obnoxious Visitors  
The Provincial Edict: 50 b.c. at Laodicaea  
Court Sessions at Laodicea, April 50 b.c.   
The Problem of a Replacement, Tarsus June-August 50 b.c.   
Favors, A Mother-in-Law in Trouble  
Dangerous Meddlers: Brutus and Appius Claudius, Laodicea 50 b.c.  
Meddlers: Merely Annoying, Laodicea February 50 b.c.   
Visits of Obnoxious Romans, Laodicaea 50 b.c.  
4 Roman Society and Culture in the Republic  
Society and the State  
The Institutions of the State Religion  
The Augurs and Fetials  
The Household  
Roman Families and their Slaves  
Clients, Patrons, Fides  
The Twelve Tables: Rome’s First Law Code  
Rules for Trial  
Patria potestas, Guardianship, Inheritance  
Acquisition, Possession, Land Ownership  
Public Law  
Sacred Law, Additional Laws  
Basic Roman Economics: Agriculture, Liberal and Illiberal Occupations  
Slaves: Articulate Tools  
“Wages Are a Pledge of Slavery”  
“The Twin Arts of War and Peace”: Roman Religion  
How Augury Worked  
The Politics of Roman Religion: The Bacchanalian Conspiracy  
A Family Trial: the Case of Pomponia Graecina  
Patria Potestas and Materna Auctoritas: The Power of Fathers
        and Mothers over Their Households  
Patria Potestas  
Materna Auctoritas: Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi  
Punishment of Children  
The Father’s Role in Educating his Children   
Roman Educational “Theory”: Helicopter Parents  
Wealth, Women, Dowries,  Adoptions in Roman Society  
“A Wife Without a Dowry is Under Her Husband’s Thumb”  
The “Laudatio Turiae”—The Eulogy of Turia  
Getting Along Together (or Not)  
A Family Row  
The Man-Placating Goddess Viriplaca  
The Economics of Farming  
“It is Profitable to Have Large Scale Gardens Near a City”  
The Economics and Dangers of Slavery  
“Sell Worn-Out Oxen… Old and Sick Slaves”  
The Revolt of Spartacus  
5 The Roman Revolution  
Modern and Ancient Versions of the Transformation  
Economic Changes  
Social Changes  
Liberated Women and Men  
Slaves and Freedmen  
Equestrians and Publicans  
Military and Constitutional Changes  
Cultural Transformation  
Religious Innovations  
A Survey of the Revolution: Provincial Voices  
An Intimate History of the Fall of the Republic: From Cicero’s
  Letters to Atticus  
Romulus’ Cesspool: June, 60 b.c.  
Caesar’s Party: 50 b.c.  
When It Comes To War Follow the Stronger Side: 50 b.c.  
The Failures and Weaknesses of Pompey: 49 b.c.  
“Both Want to Be Kings”: 49 b.c.  
The Artful Clemency of Caesar and the Incapacity of Pompey: 49 b.c.  
Cicero’s Daughter’s View: Do the Right Thing. 49 b.c.  
Plutarch’s Life of Caesar  
The Ambition to be First Man in Rome  
“Not Their Enmity but Their Friendship Caused the Civil War”  
“The Supreme Power Prostituted by Marriage Alliances”  
Caesar’s Generalship and Character  
“Subduing the Enemy with Arms and Citizens with Money”  
“Nothing Worse for Them Than a Monarchy:” The Outbreak of the
    Civil War (49
Tragic Maneuvering at Rome  
Crossing the Rubicon: “Let the Die be Cast”  
The Battle of Pharsalus (48 b.c.)  
Monarchy: a “Respite from the Evils of Civil War”  
The Assassination of Caesar: March 15, 44 b.c.  
Why the Republic Fell: Various Explanations  
“Greed Unlimited and Unrestrained Corrupted and Destroyed
Social and Economic Conditions: The Gracchi  
Marius and the Elite: Merit vs. Inherited Status  
Politicians and Generals Out of Control  
Soldiers Out of Control: Mutinies  
Out of Control Mobs  
Social and Cultural Changes  
Shattering the Aristocracy: The Proscriptions of Sulla  
Sulla’s Legislation and his Remaking of the Senate  
“The Beginnings of Foreign Luxury”  
The Decay of Morals in Second Century b.c. Rome  
“He Mocked All Greek Culture and Learning”  
“The Most Worthless Men are Attracted to Public Life”  
Women of the Late Republic: Standing Up to the Triumvirs  
Sempronia: A Woman of the Late Republic  
6 Augustus and the Principate  
The Political Issues  
The Army, the Senate and the People  
Religious and Social Reform  
Control of the Media  
Order in the City  
The Succession  
The Education of Octavian (Augustus)  
Oikeiosis: The Social and Moral Foundations of a World State  
A Contemptuous (and Wrong) Estimate of the Young Octavius  
“The Boy”  
Octavian and Antony  
Cleopatra VII  
The Death of Cleopatra  
Antony and Cleopatra: The Official Version  
The Res Gestae: What Augustus Wanted Posterity to Think of Him  
A Senator’s Estimate of Augustus  
Augustus’ Moral Reforms  
Why Marry? Augustus’ Reproach of Celibates  
Reaction to Augustus’ Moral Reforms  
The Succession  
“He was the First of the Caesars to Purchase the Fidelity of the Soldiers
with Money.”  
“The Legionaries Hit Upon the Idea of Selecting Their Own Emperor”  
Augustan Literature  
“The Dark Dawning of our Present Age”: The Preface to Livy’s History  
Rome’s Destiny: “Spare a Humbled Foe, and Crush to Earth the Proud”  
Sulpicia in Love  
Horace: “Carpe Diem—Seize the Day  
Ovid’s Star-Crossed Lovers  
7 The Roman Peace: How the Romans Ran their Empire  
Ethnicity in the Empire  
The Cement of Empire  
The Emperors  
Imperial Governors  
The Army  
The Genius of the Roman Military  
Roman Society  
Some Vignettes of the Emperors  
Tiberius: How (Not) to Deal with Consumerism  
The Madness of Caligula  
Claudius: A Family Problem  
Nero Murders His Mother  
Restraining Luxury: Vespasian’s Example or Mutating Social Tastes?   
Galba: “Men Cannot Bear Absolute Slavery or Absolute Freedom  
A Portrait of the Roman Empire  
“Nations by the Thousands Serve the Masters of the Entire World”  
Not Everyone Loved Rome  
They Make a Desert and Call It Peace”: A View of Rome from the Provinces  
Not Everyone Loved Foreigners  
“Syrian Orontes Has Deposited its Verbal and Cultural Sewage in the Tiber”  
No Alternative to Rome: “If the Romans Are Driven out What Else Can
 There Be Except Wars Among All These Nations?”  
“There Will be Vices as Long as There are Men”  
What Held Rome Together 1: The Army  
“The Romans Have Subjugated the World by Training in the Use of Weapons,
                Strict Discipline and Experience in Warfare”  
Foreigners in the Roman Army: A Syrian, A Spaniard, A Britain  
Making It in the Ranks: The Well-Travelled M. Vettius Valens  
A Legionary Roster from the Second Century a.d.  
“Soldiering is a Harsh and Unrewarding Profession”: Conditions of Service
    and the Revolt of
a.d. 14  
What Held Rome Together 2: The Elite  
“Severus Hailed from Africa”  
What Held the Empire Together 3: Hard Working Emperors  
What Held the Empire Together 4: Elite Patronage   
A Municipal Patron: Baths, A Library, Freedmen, the Plebs, Children  
Friends of Corellia  
A Centurion’s Daughter  
A Procuratorship “To Enhance His Dignity in Old Age”  
What Held the Empire Together 5: Social Mobility  
From Slave to Municipal Magistrate  
Publius Decimus, a Freedman Doctor, “Paved Public Roads at his Expense”  
What Held the Empire Together 6: Competent Administrators  
The Slave Manager Musicus Scurranus: “He Was a Worthy Master”  
The Procuratorial Administrative System  
What Held the Empire Together 7: The Role of Law  
“The Emperor Can Triumph as Much for his Administration of Justice as for his
   Victories in War”  
The Personal Character of Roman Law: “She Disgraced Him and Herself by
   Haaving an Affair with a Centurion”  
An Appeal from Peasants in Africa  
8 Culture and Religion in the Roman Empire  
Religions of the Empire  
Emperor Worship  
Civic Religions and Cults  
The Health of Paganism  
Polytheism and Monotheism  
Rabbinic Judaism  
Civic Religion  
The Ideology of Paganism  
The Divine Emperor  
A Negative Assessment of Emperor Worship: “Bondage to Royal Authority”  
What an Emperor Thought of Divine Worship: “These Sentiments in your Hearts
   are my Temples”  
Mass Human Sacrifice Among the Celts  
Martial the Priest: “The Gentle Deities of My Tiny Farm”  
A Holy Man Stops a Plague at Ephesus  
Judaism of the Diaspora  
Prologue to the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach  
“He Does not Disclose His Mystery but to the Just”  
Rabbinic Judaism  
The Mishnah   
Christianity: Jesus of Nazareth  
Signs of the Coming Reign of God  
“Do Not Think I Came to Bring Peace but the Sword”  
“Who is my Neighbor? The Good Samaritan  
True Generosity: The Widow’s Mite  
The Basis of Judgment at the End of the World: The Sheep
             and the Goats  
Cleansing the Temple  
The Mission of the Apostles  
The Keys of the Kingdom  
Christianity: Paul of Tarsus  
Paul’s Autobiography  
Revolutionary Monotheism: Paul at Athens  
The Origins of Evil: Paul and Original Sin  
Early Christianity  
Against Radicalism  
Christian Practice: Justin Martyr  
Pliny’s Encounter with Christianity  
Divination, Astrology, Magic  
“Will her Lover Outlive Her?”   
“Thumbs Down Means Approval”  
Morality and the Philosophers   
Musonius Rufus: “A Great Variety of Sexual Experiences”  
Epictetus: “As to Your Parents, the Gods Have Left You Free from Responsibility”  
Epicureanism: “There is Nothing to Fear in God, Nothing to Feel in Death”   
For Greeks Tattooing is Shameful and Degrading: Moral Relativism  
9 Daily Life in the Roman Empire  
Rural Life  
Urban Life  
Urban Life and Romanization  
The Uses of Amusement: Games   
Peasant Life  
Baucis and Philemon: “There Were No Masters or Servants in That House”  
City Life: How the Urban Lower Classes Coped  
The Laws of the Collegium  
The Upper Classes: Technology and the Good Life  
Leisure: Gymnasia, the Baths, the Circus, the Arena  
Gymnasia: “They Anoint Themselves with a Drug”  
Gladiators: Various Views  
Daily Life as Seen through the Law Codes  
If, while Several Persons are Playing Ball…  
Mules Were Hauling Two Loaded Wagons  
Bequests: “She Afterwards Disposed of the Pearls”  
Wolves Carried Away Some Hogs  
Family Life  
An Affectionate Paterfamilias: “I Owe it All to my Father”  
A Satirist’s View of Marriage: “You Might as well Bow your Head and
   Accept the Yoke”  
The Purpose of Marriage; “A Shared Life and the Procreation of Children”  
An Affectionate Marriage: “You Cannot Imagine How Much I Miss You”  
An Epitaph for a Wife  
Epitaphs for Children  
Friendship Among Wives: A Birthday Invitation  
Abortion and Infanticide  
10 Late Antiquity: The Transformed Empire  
The Geographical Shift  
Political, Military and Administrative Transformations  
Barbarians and the Fall of the Western Empire  
Christianity, the Barbarians and the Fall of Rome  
Christianity and the Classical Tradition  
The Democratization of Excellence  
Being All Things to All People  
Enthusiasts: A Problem for the Authorities  
Self-Realization in Late Antiquity  
Faith and Reason  
The Empire and the Church Come to Terms  
The Barbarians and Romans Come to Terms  
“Now Declining into Old Age”: Roman History from a
 Late Empire Viewpoint  
New Founders of Rome: Diocletian and Constantine  
The Revenue Enhancers  
“The Empire Gradually Collapsed and was Imperceptibly Barbarized”  
Constantine and Christianity  
The Edict of Milan: “Our Intent is that the Supreme Deity… May Show
   In Everything His Usual Favor and Goodwill”  
The Beginning of the End of Gladiatorial Combat  
The Majesty of Emperors: Desires and Realities  
The Entry of Constantius into Rome: a.d. 357  
Dodging Responsibility: Elite Dodges  
The Dodges of the Poor  
“Crushed Beans, Sewer Cleaners, Women’s Slippers:”
                 Whipping Inflation  
The Emperor, the Truth, and Corruption  
Huns, Alans, Goths and the Fall of Rome   
The Huns: “A People Savage Beyond All Parallel”  
The Alans: “That Man is Called Happy Who Hhas Lost His
                Life in War”
The Goths, “Destined to Overthrow Rome” Cross the Danube  
Reactions to the Sack of Rome  
Christianity, Rome, and Classical Culture  
A Different Vision  
Organization and Belief  
Letter of Cornelius   
How to Determine Orthodoxy  
Repression and Martyrdom  
They Have No Alters, No Temples, No Acknowledged Images”  
What Difference Did Christianity Make? Emperor Julian’s Answer  
When the Shoe was on the Other Foot  
“Rites Which Preserved the City Unconquered for Twelve Hundred
Mistreatment of the Jews  
Gregory Forbids Forced Conversions of Jew  
Gregory Orders the Return of Jewish Property  
Legislation Against the Civic Religion: Sacrifice and Divination  
The Hellenization and Romanization of Christianity  
Faith and Syllogisms  
Justin Martyr: “Christianity is the True Philosophy”  
11 Late Antiquity: The World of the Abrahamic Religions  
Revolutionary Monotheism  
The Sacred Scriptures of the Monotheists  
Radical Beliefs, Philology and the New Testament  
Settling Disputes  
Constantine’s Fateful Intervention  
Orthopraxy and Orthodoxy  
Heterodoxy and Culture  
Revolutionary Institutions: Monasticism  
Germanic Kingdoms and the Fall of the Western Empire  
The Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire  
The Rise of Islam  
Revolutionary Monotheism  
Judaism: The Shema and the Amidah  
Christianity: The Nicene Creed  
Heresy and the Evolution of Orthodoxy  
Arius: The Son a “Perfect Creature of God”  
The Arrogance of Intellectuals: “They Wanted to Improve on
                 their Predecessors”  
Monasticism and the Dangers of Religious Enthusiasm  
“Those Black-Garbed People Who Eat More than Elephants”  
“They are Bound by No Rule but Do Exactly as they Please”  
Rule of St. Benedict: Ordinary People Living Extraordinary Lives  
The Conversion of a Barbarian King  
“A Sparrow Comes into the Hall and Flies Swiftly Through It….”  
The Splendor of Byzantium   
The Church of Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia  
“The Roman Palace was Another Heaven”  
Augustine’s Two Cities: The City of God and the City of Man  
““The Heavenly City Lives Like a Captive”  
Church and State: God and Caesar  
“There Are Two Powers by Which This World is Ruled”   
The Quran: The Sacred Scriptures of Islam  
The Five Pillars of Islam  
Abraham: The First Muslim  
The People of the Book   
Jihad: the Sixth Pillar of Islam  
Islamic Eschatology: The Mahdi, the Antichrist, and the Second Coming of Jesus